There are different types of farms depending on whether it is a farm with livestock or an organic vegetable farm. This article is all about what type of farm you want to be based on your budget and other factors.
What are the Different Types of Farms?
Despite the fact that farming is less common in many cultures than it was decades before, there are still several types of farms in existence today. Some of these farms specialize in the production of fruits and vegetables.
While others specialize in the production of animals, dairy, or even fish. Here are some examples of the various sorts of farms that can be found in several nations throughout the globe.
Apiaries, sometimes known as “bee yards,” are agricultural operations where honey bee colonies are maintained. An apiary may refer to the beehives of a hobbyist beekeeper or those utilized for commercial agriculture, teaching, or research.
Apiaries exist in a variety of sizes and can be found in both rural and urban settings. Mobile beekeeping is the practice through which certain apiarists transfer their hives to suitable, profitable sites; for example, pollination the almond crop in California needs roughly 60 percent of managed honey bees in the United States.
Aquaculture is, expressed simply, aquatic agriculture. Aquaculture comprises the breeding, growing, and harvesting of fish, shellfish, aquatic plants, algae, and other creatures in order to create food and other commercial items.
Some aquaculture operations are also devoted to restoring habitat, restocking wild fish populations, and rebuilding populations of vulnerable and endangered species.
Freshwater and marine aquaculture are the two divisions of aquaculture.
Aquaculture in the marine environment produces saltwater aquatic animals such as oysters, clams, mussels, shrimp, and seaweed, as well as fish such as salmon, bass, and yellowtail. In ocean water or in saltwater tanks on land, fish are raised in net pens. Shellfish can either be “planted” on the ocean floor or raised in cages.
Primarily in ponds or other man-made systems, catfish and trout are raised for aquaculture.
Commercial farms are large-scale agricultural operations that produce crops and other agricultural products for sale, as opposed to family or community farms.
The USDA Economic Research Service defines commercial farms as farms with a gross cash farm revenue of at least $350,000. Residence farms and intermediate farms are farms with modest revenues that offer agricultural goods.
Additionally, commercial farms are owned by corporations as opposed to families or cooperatives.
Cooperative farms are farms where farmers combine their time and financial resources and share the rewards. Cooperative farms are owned by its members, not by outside investors or stockholders. Additionally, each member of a cooperative farm gets a voice in business decisions.
Dairy farms are committed to milk production. Dairy farms can be operated on a small or commercial basis. Some dairy farms also produce sheep and goats for milk production, although cows are the most common milk-producing animal.
Some dairy farmers own their cows and property, while others work on enormous corporate-owned dairy farms. Some dairy farms cultivate and collect cow feed on-site. They may also breed and rear heifers to maintain populations that provide milk.
Dry farming, often known as dryland farming, is the growing of crops without irrigation in locations with minimal moisture, generally less than 20 inches of annual precipitation.
A soil’s ability to hold moisture efficiently is vital for dry agriculture. Ideally, the soil surface should be devoid of weeds yet include sufficient dead plant material to prevent flow and erosion.
Choosing the appropriate crops is also crucial for dry farming. Dry-resistant crops, such as sorghum, release minute quantities of moisture and cease growth during drought conditions.
Other crops that mature more quickly and mature more quickly than those cultivated in more humid environments are also suitable for dry farms.
Family farms are farms owned and run by a family, passed down from generation to generation, as opposed to a corporation.
Family farms are defined by the USDA as any farm established as a sole proprietorship, partnership, or family company. Family farms do not include farms structured as non-family businesses or cooperatives, nor do they include farms with paid management.
According to the National Agricultural Statistics Service’s Census of Agriculture, approximately 96% of farms in the United States are family-owned.
Family farms must carefully plan for succession as older generations leave the industry. An estimated 70% of U.S. farmland will change ownership during the next two decades, yet many enterprises lack a trained or committed next generation to continue farming.
Without a succession plan, family farms are likely to fail, be absorbed by bigger farming neighbors, or be transferred to non-agricultural purposes.
Flower farms cultivate and sell cut flowers. Many are also involved in the floral arrangement, event organizing, or wedding planning industries. A number of flower farms feature on-site nurseries or greenhouses to lengthen their blooming seasons.
The purpose of hay farms is to cultivate livestock feed. All fifty states produce hay, however the types of grass cultivated vary by area. Hay producers need at least 10 acres of land suitable for hay production, as well as a tractor, mower, hay rake, and baler.
Hay can be compacted into tiny, rectangular bales or big, spherical rolls, each of which requires distinct baling machinery. Mold and spores may be exceedingly hazardous to cattle, thus farmers must carefully manage the moisture content of their hay crop.
Hobby farms are operated for pleasure rather than profit. Even while hobby farmers may make some money from their home gardens or livestock operations, they must have another source of income to sustain their farming interest.
A micro farm is a small, sustainable farm that is typically less than 5 acres in size (though the exact acreage can vary). Micro farming is a small-scale, high-yield, sustainably-minded kind of agriculture that is typically practiced by hand in urban or suburban regions.
An orchard is a farm where fruit- and nut-bearing trees and bushes are purposefully planted. The fruits of an orchard include apples, pears, oranges, bananas, and cherries. Orchard nuts consist of pecans, walnuts, and almonds, among others.
Many orchards only produce one type of fruit, despite the fact that integrating diversity into orchards helps the business develop tolerance to pests and illnesses. Apple and orange orchards are the largest in the United States, but citrus orchards are more frequently referred to as groves.
Without using synthetic fertilizers or pesticides, organic farms produce and prepare food. Natural insecticides may be utilized in organic food production.
More than 40 private organizations and governmental authorities certify organic food, although their requirements may vary with regard to the pesticides and fertilizers they allow and the substance of certification papers. The USDA National Organic Program approves all organic labeling, terminology, and standards.
The United States has over 14,000 certified organic farms in 2016, according to the National Agricultural Statistics Service of the USDA.
A poultry farm grows chickens, turkeys, ducks, and geese, among other domesticated birds, for meat and eggs. Chickens are the most prevalent species bred for both meat and eggs. For exhibits and contests, rare or heritage breeds of chicken are bred.
A ranch is a vast tract of land used to raise grazing animals, such as cattle and sheep. Some ranches have livestock such as elk, bison, emu, and alpacas that are less common.
In the western United States, several ranches combine private land with public land maintained by government agencies such as the Bureau of Land Management or the U.S. Forest Service, where they are permitted to graze their herds and flocks under grazing leases.
On ranches with arable or irrigated ground, animals can also be fed by cultivating crops. Some functioning ranches provide hunters access to their private acreage for pleasure hunting. The term “dude ranch” refers to ranches that cater largely to visitors and guests.
Rice cultivation differs slightly from the cultivation of other grains. Rice grows optimally in regions with an abundance of water on flat ground with a subsoil that inhibits water drainage. Certain varieties of rice are cultivated in paddies or flooded agricultural fields.
Globally cultivated rice is a staple meal for more than half of the world’s population. In several nations, rice is farmed in tiny paddies for local use and sale.
Farmers engage in subsistence agriculture when they cultivate food crops to sustain themselves and their family. In subsistence agriculture, agricultural output is intended for subsistence, with little or no excess crops sold.
A typical subsistence farm includes a variety of crops and animals so that the family can eat and maybe clothe themselves throughout the year.
Most subsistence farms are located in poor nations, however many American homesteaders, particularly in off-grid locations, have constructed their farms with subsistence in mind.
U-pick farming enterprises, also known as You-Pick or Pick-Your-Own, allow visitors to select their own apples, berries, and pumpkins at specific hours and days. U-pick agriculture is a form of agritourism that caters to clients that are interested in a full-day farm visit.
U-pick farms need less effort for harvesting, enabling farmers to sell food that may be too fragile to carry, and avoid post-harvest activities such as storage and packing.
U-pick farms, on the other hand, require extended working hours and liability insurance, as well as a location close to busy population areas. The majority of U-pick business happens on weekends in late spring and autumn; therefore, success is partly reliant on the weather.
Urban farms are precisely what they sound like: farms in urban areas. Due to the availability of land in metropolitan locations, most urban farms are small-scale or micro-farms, however occasionally urban farms might encompass several acres inside city borders.
Complying with local rules and zoning regulations might make urban farming difficult, but it has sustainability benefits since it minimizes the amount of resources necessary to convey food from producers to consumers.
Additionally, urban agriculture helps to alleviate food insecurity in particular populations. Urban farms often cultivate crops, but they may also engage in urban beekeeping, aquaculture, and other forms of agriculture.
Vineyards are farms that cultivate grapes, which are cultivated on vines that are supported by trellises, which consist of poles and wires.
Grapes produced in vineyards are typically picked for wine, however some are also grown for sale for raisins. In order to promote agritourism, a vineyard may include a licensed winery for wine production, sales, and tastings.
Vineyards are often located on enormous estates, which necessitates careful planning and design to avoid pests and control disease. Viticulture is the study of wine grapes.
The geographical and geological factors of a vineyard influence the flavor and quality of the grapes grown and, consequently, the taste of the wine.
Among the various forms and functions of farm equipment, cars are the most significant and represent the greatest investment. Despite the fact that a truck is a common component of farm life, there are a number of other farm-specific vehicles as well.
To call “tractor” a vast category would be an understatement. Tractors are widespread in agriculture and come in a variety of sizes to accommodate any farming activity. A tractor’s basic function is to pull farm equipment, although contemporary tractors may be modified with a variety of attachments to meet virtually any farming requirement. For this reason, tractors are sensible investments for both small and large-scale farms.
There are several types of tractors, including the following:
- Compact tractors: Compact tractors, as their name suggests, are little, high-powered tractors capable of assisting with all of the essential farm tasks. Compact tractors are suitable for material handling and operating in confined locations where larger tractors cannot fit.
- Wheeled tractors: Wheeled tractors are general-purpose tractors that maximize the use of your equipment. These utility tractors are versatile and may be adapted for tilling, material handling, and hauling equipment. You may select the wheeled tractor that best suits your needs and application from a variety of options including horsepower, lifting capacity, control, and cab type.
- Track tractors: Track tractors are agricultural vehicles having rubber tracks instead of tires, allowing them to plow fields with greater force while giving the operator with a more comfortable ride.
- Orchard tractors: Orchard tractors are a specialized type of tractor with characteristics optimized for use in orchards. These thin tractors can fit more readily between tree rows while yet delivering the necessary power for landscaping and upkeep.
Extremely diverse attachments are utilized on tractors. See the section below on tractor attachments for further information on the different attachment types and their functions.
2. COMBINE OR HARVESTER
Combines, also known as harvesters or combine harvesters, assist grain producers in effectively harvesting their crops. Even small-scale grain producers have much to gain from utilizing a combine. Utilizing a complicated system of gears, blades, belts, and wheels, these gigantic pieces of technology transform cereal harvests into grain. This is achieved through three basic processes:
- The header, reel, and cutter bar of the combine are used to harvest the plant during the harvesting operation. The header collects the harvest as the reel propels it toward the cutter bar, which slices the crop at its base.
- Threshing is the process of separating the edible components of a crop from the inedible components. The threshing drum does this by beating the chopped crops to separate the grains from their stalks.
- Winnowing is the process of removing light chaff from the grain, and it is often performed while the grain is still in the threshing drum. Generally, sieves are utilized to remove chaff from grain.
There is a large selection of combines and combine accessories to satisfy the demands of each farm. Many modern combines are also equipped to track yield statistics, revealing which sections of the field did well and which areas did badly so that these concerns may be rectified the following year.
3. ATV OR UTV
All-terrain vehicles, commonly known as ATVs or four-wheelers, and utility vehicles, or UTVs, are becoming increasingly widespread on farms of all sizes. These tiny vehicles can traverse tough terrain more efficiently than the majority of road vehicles and faster than a regular tractor. In addition, these vehicles are compatible with a variety of accessories, including compact trailers, spreaders, and mowers.
Tractor attachments are mounted to or towed behind tractors to increase their usefulness. Their applications range from soil management to planting. The many types of agricultural equipment attachments are described here.
The plow is a huge tractor attachment that is pulled behind the tractor and has long blades that carve furrows in the soil. This technique not only loosens and rotates the soil, but it also assists in eliminating any unwanted surface plants. Plowing is a vital initial step in preparing the soil for planting, which requires a series of subsequent procedures.
There are several distinct varieties of plows, despite the apparent simplicity of the principle. Each type of plow is designed for a particular type of soil, soil condition, and crop. Here are the three most prevalent types of plows:
- Moldboard plows: Moldboard plows have wing-shaped blades that are meant to cut into the soil and turn it. This style of plow is suitable for shallow but thorough soil turning, which is frequently required for land that has not been utilized for agricultural production in several years.
- Disc plows: Disc plows are comprised of rows of discs that operate to aerate the soil and sever weeds. Disc plows are less popular than moldboard plows since they are less successful at aerating the soil, although they may be more beneficial for extremely sticky or rocky soil.
- Chisel plows: Chisel plows are distinguished by their very long shanks. These shanks cultivate the soil to a depth of at least one foot. This is generally required for land that has been consistently used for crop production.The price of a plow can range from a few hundred to several thousand dollars, depending on its kind, size, brand, and condition.
Whereas plowing prepares the soil for agricultural operations, harrowing further agitates it. These attachments break up soil clods, level the soil’s surface, and disperse crop and weed leftovers to make it simpler for new plants to take root and develop. After spreading manure and fertilizer, harrows can be used to assist break up clumps and distribute the fertilizer more evenly.
The following are popular types of harrows:
- Spring harrows: Spring harrows are an obsolete design that are no longer widely utilized. These attachments employ flexible iron teeth arranged in rows to loosen and stir the soil.
- Roller harrows: Roller harrows resemble huge spiky tubes and, as suggested by their name, are rolled across the land to help break up the soil and prepare it for seed sowing.
- Chain harrows: Chain harrows resemble chain nets with protruding spikes. These are used to aerate and distribute dirt and fertilizer over the surface of the ground.
- Disc harrows: Modernized versions of spring harrows, disc harrows consist of rows of huge discs that break up dirt and weeds more completely following plowing.
During the soil preparation process, numerous types of harrows are frequently employed for distinct reasons and may be utilized many times. Depending on their size and intricacy, harrows can be pushed behind tractors or ATVs. Advanced harrows require a tractor, although they frequently combine the advantages of numerous harrow kinds into one.
3. FERTILIZER SPREADERS
As their name indicates, fertilizer spreaders distribute fertilizer across a field. There are fertilizer spreaders that may be operated independently, but most farming operations require a fertilizer spreader that is driven by a tractor for rapid, uniform fertilizing.
Multiple varieties of fertilizer spreaders exist, differing mostly according on the type of fertilizer utilized. These are some of the most frequent types of fertilizer spreaders fitted on tractors:
- Broadcast spreader: Possibly the most prevalent fertilizer spreader is the broadcast spreader, which uses gravity to distribute fertilizer.
- Manure spreader: Spreaders of manure distribute solid manure from cattle across a field. This is a simple and successful method of using manure, albeit the solid manure will frequently need to be broken up with a harrow and mixed with the soil.
- Slurry spreader: Spreaders of liquid manure, also known as slurry spreaders, apply a slurry of liquid manure to a field.
Fertilizer spreaders vary greatly in size and cost, so you should carefully assess your application prior to making a purchase. Notably, fertilizer spreader attachments are also available for ATVs and UTVs in addition to tractors.
Seeders, as its name implies, are meant to rapidly and effectively distribute seeds across wide areas of land. While small farms may utilize modest mechanical seeders or even hand-seeding techniques, tractor-drawn seeders are currently the most popular way of sowing on large-scale farms. Various machinery are used for agricultural seeding, including the following:
- Broadcast seeders: Broadcast seeders are available in a variety of sizes and are also known as seeders and rotary spreaders. These seeders function by inserting seeds into a hopper. A rotating plate within the hopper collects seeds for dispersion throughout the field. While this strategy is good for planting cover crops and grasses, it is not suitable for garden crops that require more structure, such as rows.
- Air seeders: Air seeders are very big seeders that spray seeds into the ground using compressed air. Due to its operation, air seeders can only be used on tiny, spherical seeds, limiting their value despite their efficacy.
- Box drill seeders: Box drills are the preferred seeder for the majority of agricultural operations since they are simple to operate and compatible with a broad variety of seed types. These attachments penetrate the soil and deposit seeds at a predetermined depth.
- Planters: Planters are the most precise seeders, yet they are also the most costly. The blades and wheels of planters are topped with seedboxes containing the seeds to be sown. The planter operates by cutting into the soil, dropping individual seeds, and then quickly sealing the soil behind them.
Similar to other attachments, the price of a seeder depends on its size, kind, and condition.
Balers are vital for collecting hay, straw, and corn stalks. These tractor attachments gather these materials and bundle them into bales that are more manageable. There are three primary categories of hay balers:
- Round balers: Round balers function by rolling hay into round forms, which are subsequently wrapped.
- Square balers: Square balers gather hay, straw, or stalks into compactors that pack and compress the material into a square form. When the baler has collected sufficient material, it binds it with two pieces of twine or wire and puts it in a designated spot. There are several sizes of square balers to accommodate a range of uses.
- Large square balers: Large square balers perform the same purpose as standard square balers, but they are capable of handling substantially greater quantities for industrial-scale farms.
In general, square balers are less expensive than round balers, but the type of baler and wrapping method that is ideal for your farm will depend on the application.
6. WAGONS OR TRAILERS
Wagons and trailers are essential to any agricultural enterprise. Wagons and trailers are available in a broad variety of sizes and materials, and they may be used for a variety of purposes, including:
- Harvesting: Wagons and trailers may be utilized to transport hay bales and other harvested products from one section of the farm to another.
- Material handling: Wagons are frequently used to transport enormous quantities of commodities, such as fertilizers and feed, over vast distances.
- Human resources: Wagons and trailers with seating can be used to transport personnel and tourists through vast stretches of territory in the domain of human resources.
- Equipment transportation: Transporting farming equipment, smaller vehicles, and accessories, trailers are frequently outfitted for this purpose.
Tractor wagons and trailers come in a broad range of sizes, and many farming operations may require many varieties to accommodate the diverse tasks involved in everyday farming operations.
7. OTHER TRACTOR ATTACHMENTS
Despite the fact that the attachments listed above are the most typically purchased tractor attachments, there is a vast array of additional tractor attachments used in farming and related applications. Among these several sorts of agricultural equipment attachments are the following:
- Sprayers: Sprayer attachments can be used to apply insecticides, fertilizers, and other things across vast regions. Large-acreage farming operations are required to have these tools.
- Mowers: Mowers are essential for broad tracts of land, but tractor owners may profit from mower attachments. There are several types of mowers to satisfy a variety of farm purposes, including grass maintenance and harvesting. The precise sort of mower you need for your application will depend on your land, and you may need numerous attachments to service various portions of your property.
- Transplanters: Tractor-pulled transplanters make transplanting simple by removing huge amounts of developing plants, drilling holes for them, and putting them in holes dug by the machine.
- Cultivators: Cultivators are used for soil cultivation, particularly for weed management. These are often employed in modest agricultural enterprises for shallow tilling.
- Plastic mulch layers: For big farms employing plasticulture techniques, a plastic mulch layer tractor attachment is required. Using a number of rollers, this apparatus lays a ream of plastic flat down the bed.
- Rakes: If your farm involves the production of hay, you must equip your tractor with a rake attachment. Wheel rakes, parallel-bar rakes, rotary rakes, and belt rakes are all available as pull-behind attachments for rakes.
There are additional backhoe tractor attachments available if your application demands frequent hole digging. These attachments have a 10-foot digging depth. However, renting or leasing a separate backhoe may be more effective for larger-scale projects.
Attachments for front-end loaders may be rather diverse for small to medium-sized farms. These attachments, which are not available for all tractors, can dig, transport and carry big or bulky objects, and perform various land-grading activities.
There are more types of agricultural equipment attachments for tractors besides those listed above, but these are the most common. It is essential to note that not all farms require all of these attachments; small-scale farms will require fewer types of agricultural equipment than large-scale farms, and the demand for specialized equipment will vary dependent on the farm’s local environment and farming practices.
The farm can be considered as any type of agricultural enterprise, from the smallest home-based operation to an industrial-scale plant, but it also refers to a business that focuses on providing food for human consumption or fiber or other materials for commercial purposes.