What is Asset Accounting? Definition, Types, Overview

Asset accounting is the process of tracking every asset in your business. This includes assets like buildings, inventory, furniture, vehicles, machinery, etc. Click on each section below to read more information related to it.

What is Asset Accounting?

Asset accounting focuses on the recording and reporting of financial information pertinent to the balance sheet financial statement of a business. The balance sheet lists all of a company’s assets.

This information must be appropriately reported by accountants since assets constitute a fraction of the company’s total worth or economic growth.

What is Asset Accounting?

The assets on the balance sheet are divided into two categories: current and fixed. Each category comprises particular items whose values are calculated in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP).

Important fundamentals of Asset Accounting

The Asset Accounting subcomponent includes the following elements:
  • Basic functions:

    • Master data (asset maintenance)

    • Basic valuation functions

    • Depreciation

    • Transactions, such as asset acquisitions and retirements

    • Closing operations

    • And more

  • Special valuations: for example, for investment support

  • Preparations for consolidation for group financial statements

  • Information System

The fundamental functions encompass the full asset lifecycle, from the purchase order or initial acquisition (which can be handled as an asset under development) until the asset’s retirement.

What is Asset Accounting?

The system automatically calculates, to a significant degree, the values for depreciation, interest, and other reasons between these two dates, and makes this information available to you in a variety of formats via the Information System. There is a report for depreciation predictions and asset value evolution simulation.

The solution allows you to handle values in parallel currencies using various valuation methods. These characteristics facilitate the consolidation of multi-national group interests. For parallel valuation, the depreciation sections of Asset

Accounting can be assigned flexibly to the general ledger’s ledgers. The system uploads parallel values alongside the actual values in real time, with distinct papers for each valuation (that is, each accounting principle)

Important configuration of Asset Accounting in SAP

The initial step in configuring asset accounting in SAP is to determine whether a country-specific template is available. If the business is small and has few assets, we may proceed with the configuration using the lean implementation technique for asset accounting. Otherwise, we can proceed with the standard implementation technique.

Configuration steps

The following are the essential SAP FI – AA setups.

Use of Asset Accounting

The SAP Asset Accounting module is used to manage and monitor fixed assets. It acts as a secondary ledger to the general ledger in Financial Accounting, giving specific information on transactions involving fixed assets.

Implementation Considerations of Asset Accounting

Asset Accounting is designed for worldwide use in a variety of nations and industries. No country-specific valuation standards are hard-coded into the system. You give this component its country- and organization-specific characteristics by adjusting the options under Customizing. To reduce the time and effort required for Customization, country-specific standard options are offered whenever available.The Asset Accounting (New) Implementation Guide (IMG) contains the essential functionalities for this Customization.

In SAP Accounting driven by SAP HANA, only the new Asset Accounting and new General Ledger Accounting are accessible. Asset Accounting requires that you have enabled and configured the General Ledger Accounting (FI-GL) (New) application component.

See Customizing for Asset Accounting (New) under New Asset Accounting: Preparation and Activation for further information on the requirements and implementation of the new Asset Accounting.

Integration of Asset Accounting

As a result of SAP system integration, Asset Accounting directly transmits data to and from other systems. For instance, it is possible to publish straight from the Materials Management MM module to Asset Accounting.

What is Asset Accounting?

When an asset is acquired or generated internally, you may immediately post the invoice receipt, goods receipt, or warehouse withdrawal to the asset in the Asset Accounting component. Simultaneously, you may transfer depreciation and interest to the Financial Accounting (FI) and Controlling (CO) components.

From the Plant Maintenance (PM Plant Maintenance) component, you may settle capitalization-required maintenance activities to assets.

How Do Assets Play Into Accounting?

Accurate accounting, company planning, and financial reporting need an understanding of and an accurate valuation of assets. And public corporations are legally compelled to account for leased assets appropriately. Understanding a company’s cash flow and working capital requires classification and valuation of assets.

Accountants must correctly categorize assets for purposes such as getting loans and insurance. In order to compute depreciation and amortization for tax purposes and to enable the firm to sell them if required, they must also accurately evaluate the company’s assets.

Understanding the different types of assets

The Current Assets

Current assets are recorded first on the balance sheet under the asset accounting category. These assets include cash and cash equivalents, inventories, accounts receivable, and marketable securities with a short-term maturity.

Asset accounting evaluates these assets at their current market worth since this information is publicly available and the items may be bought or sold on the open market with relative speed.

Current assets may also include the goods utilized by a firm to earn revenue via routine operations. The second group of assets on the balance sheet consists of a company’s fixed assets.

The Fixed assets

Fixed assets are things retained by a firm for long-term usage. Depending on the size and nature of the company’s operations, several fixed assets may be present. Asset accounting is required by GAAP to classify fixed assets into one of three categories: intangible, tangible, or investments.

The final category of balance sheet fixed assets consists of the company’s investments. These assets are categorized as held-to-maturity, for sale, and long-term investments. The asset accounting records the current market worth of these goods.


This necessitates that accountants examine the investment market to estimate how much these assets may be sold for at current market prices. Adjustments are subsequently applied to these fixed assets in order to boost or reduce the asset’s book value.

The Intangible Assets

Included in intangible assets are goodwill, patents, copyrights, and trademarks. These items are appraised using GAAP-prescribed accounting metrics.

What is Asset Accounting?

Depending on the nature of intangible asset, the business sector or industry may let corporations to value these goods differently. Tangible assets are the next category of fixed assets on the balance sheet.

The Tangible Assets

The conventional tangible assets include land, buildings, machinery, vehicles, furnishings, and computer equipment. Typically, asset accounting records these assets at their historical cost and depreciates their value over a certain period of time.

Generally speaking, GAAP permits businesses to select a depreciation method commensurate with the kind of asset reported across a variety of company industries or sectors.

Accountants must utilize the Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) to record depreciation on yearly tax returns when reporting certain fixed assets for tax reasons. When depreciating fixed assets, asset accounting must retain two distinct depreciation schedules.

How do different types of assets in accounting work?

We have supplied you with a reference to the many categories of assets, however the types of assets on a balance sheet are slightly different.

When entering the assets of your firm in your accounts, it is not necessary to categorize them with such precision. Typically, only two types of assets appear on a balance sheet: current assets and fixed assets.

Furthermore, assigning a value to intangible assets complicates the classification of different types of assets in accounting, as it is highly complex. In any event, there is no conventional technique of valuation.

How do you determine the worth of your company’s “brand awareness,” for example? Ultimately, you cannot include an intangible asset on your balance sheet if you cannot appropriately assign a value to it.

It is also crucial to know that various types of assets are expensed differently in accounting. Depreciation is utilized for tangible assets (those with a physical existence), whereas amortization is utilized for intangible assets.

Depreciation and amortization may have a significant influence on your business’s taxable revenue, so it’s vital to get this right.


The asset accounting process is an essential part of managing any type of business. An asset is anything a business owns that can be sold to generate revenue for the business. Assets include cash, equipment, inventory, real estate, and other items.

What is Asset Accounting?

In order to effectively manage your business, you must be able to accurately measure the value of all your assets. This is where asset accounting comes in. An asset accounting program allows you to track your assets in a spreadsheet so you can measure their value.

For example, if you own a car, you’ll need to calculate the car’s value. How much could you sell it for? How many miles are on it? How old is it? If you had the right


The Asset Accounting (FI-AA) component is used for managing and supervising fixed assets with the SAP System. In Financial Accounting, it serves as a subsidiary ledger to the General Ledger, providing detailed information on transactions involving fixed assets.
Inventory is an asset because a company invests money in it that it then converts into revenue when it sells the stock. Inventory that does not sell as quickly as expected may become a liability.
The four main types of assets are: short-term assets, financial investments, fixed assets, and intangible assets.
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