What Is Pro Forma Profit and Loss Statement? 15 Facts

Even if you do not need to borrow money from a bank or other lender to launch your small business, you will still need financial statements to help you make important choices.

A profit and loss statement is the most crucial financial statement a firm need (called a “P&L”). Occasionally, it is referred to as a profit and loss statement.

This statement details the business’s income and costs, as well as its profit or loss, over a given time period (a month, a quarter, or a year).

What Is Pro Forma Profit and Loss Statement?

Profit and loss pro forma is a forecast of a company’s future net income. This information is often located on a profit and loss statement, also known as an income statement, and consists of a company’s estimates for future sales, costs, and profits.

What Is pro Forma Profit and Loss Statement?

Pro forma profit and loss projections are vital for a business because they help them to budget for the following period and identify areas where operational improvements are necessary.

Uses of Pro Forma Income Statement

The most challenging aspect of any company strategy is revenue projection. The assumptions must be reasonable and capable of supporting the projection. It is used to generate Cash Flow Statements and Balance Sheets, which are essential elements of a business strategy.

It may be developed before to a transaction in order to estimate the company’s future standing. For instance, if a business is seeking to buy another business, it may generate a pro forma financial statement to assess the impact of the transaction on its finances.

It is also possible to compute financial ratios using pro forma income and expense data.

If a corporation incurs a one-time expenditure, it may significantly diminish its net profits for the year. In following years, this expense becomes unimportant.

In order to provide investors and analysts with a clearer view of the company’s financial status, corporations eliminate these charges when calculating their pro forma profit and loss.

Given the nature of their company, pro forma profit and loss statements provide a clear and accurate picture of the performance of some firms. Telephone and cable businesses are one example.


The fact that it is only a projection with an unpredictable future is one of its key limitations. The assumptions stated form the basis of any pro forma.

If the assumptions are incorrect, the planning and execution might be flawed. In an ever-evolving and dynamic corporate environment, historical data may not always serve to present the accurate image.

Companies have a tendency to distort their financial profits while creating pro formas because there are no fixed guidelines. Companies are permitted to remove any information that they feel hides their genuine financial performance.

What Is pro Forma Profit and Loss Statement?

Some businesses exclude unsold inventory from their financial records, which, in a sense, reflects ineffective management for producing inventory that cannot be sold.

It does not imply that all businesses alter their earnings. Consequently, investors and analysts examining pro forma income statements should pay close attention to what is and is not reported.

When Do I Need to Prepare a Profit and Loss Statement? 

Periodic P&L

Every company must compile and analyze its profit and loss statement on a frequent basis, at least quarterly. Examining the profit and loss statement facilitates decision-making and tax return preparation.

Your business tax return will utilize the P&L as the foundation for calculating net income and determining the amount of income tax your company must pay.

Pro Forma P&L

At its inception, a new firm must prepare a statement of profits and losses. This is a pro forma declaration, which means it is a projection into the future. When seeking capital for a new business venture, your company will also require a pro forma profit and loss statement.

Who Uses Pro Forma Income Statements?

For the following reasons, business owners, accountants, or outside consultants may prepare pro forma revenue statements:

  • To forecast the business’s probable profits for creditors or investors.
  • To convince potential workers of a business’s future health
  • To provide managers with financial possibilities, such as big, one-time purchases
  • To assist in the purchase of a company decision-making.

Why create pro forma statements?

Developing pro forma statements for potential future outcomes might assist you:

Demonstrate to lenders and investors how you will utilize their money to build your firm sustainably.

Plan for the future by carefully evaluating the best, worst, and most probable case situations.
Anticipate changes that may effect the growth of your firm, such as entering a new tax rate.

In financial accounting, pro forma statements are often generated for these objectives as part of a financial projection.

Large organizations with internal accountants utilize pro forma accounts for financial modeling and scenario planning.

What Is pro Forma Profit and Loss Statement?

Pro forma statements vs. budgets

It might be tempting to consider a pro forma statement equivalent to a corporate budget. Ultimately, both are produced in expectation of the future.

And both help you organize your financial resources. However, budgets and pro forma financial statements are two separate financial instruments.

Consider that a pro forma statement is a forecast, but a budget is a plan. Your budget may be based on the financial data from your pro forma accounts; after all, it makes sense to establish plans based on projections.

Your income this year, for example, is $37,000. According to your projected pro forma yearly income statement, next year’s income will be $44,000.

So, when you establish your budget for the next year, you may incorporate this additional $7,000. For example, you might use $4,000 to pay down the debt on a loan while adding $3,000 to savings.

How to create pro forma statements

Depending on the design of your template, the sample pro forma statements provided below may change from the statements you generate.

In general, these are the actions you must follow to generate pro forma statements, as well as the information they should contain.

Creating a pro forma income statement

Five stages are required to create a pro forma income statement:

  1. Establish a sales target for the period under consideration. Consider that you wish to boost your salary by $18,000 in one year.
  2. Create a production schedule that will allow you to attain your objective, and lay it out across the time period in question. In this situation, you must earn an additional $1,500 every month for 12 months.
  3. Consider how you will coordinate your manufacturing schedule. You might do this by raising your monthly sales by a predetermined amount or by progressively increasing your monthly sales. It is up to you to rely on your business owner experience.
  4. Now comes the loss portion of “Profit and Loss.” Determine the cost of items sold for each projected month. Subtract it from your sales. Deduct any additional running expenditures you have.
  5. Prepare a pro forma income statement using the information gathered in the preceding four phases.

Your pro forma statements will be far more accurate if your accounting is up to date. Thus, your projections for future periods will be based on the current state of your business.

Example pro forma cash flow statement

Mickie’s Murakami Museum

2021 (current) $ 2022 $ 2023 $
OPENING BALANCE 16,000 17,000 19,000
Donors 85,000 87,000 92,000
Souvenir Shop 1,000 900 800
Total Cash Received 86,000 87,900 92,800
Supplies 34,000 36,000 37,000
Rent 24,000 24,000 24,000
Income Tax 8,000 8,600 8,800
Total Cash Paid 66,000 68,600 69,800
Net Cash Flow Operations 20,000 19,300 23,000

Creating a pro forma balance sheet

Using information from the income statement and cash flow statement, it is possible to generate pro forma balance sheets. For this to be meaningful, however, you will also need past balance sheets, so you can see how your firm went from “Balance A” to “Balance B.”

What Is pro Forma Profit and Loss Statement?

The balance sheet forecasts the evolution of your company’s accounts over time. So that you can plan where and when to shift money.

Example pro forma balance sheet

Daily Dumpling Deliveries

2021 $ 2022 $ 2023 $
Current Assets
Checking Acct. 13,000 16,000 19,000
Savings Acct. 35,000 41,000 45,000
Accounts Receivable 4,000 2,000 2,000
Inventory 14,000 17,000 21,000
Total Current Assets 66,000 76,000 87,000
Production Equipment 14,000 14,000 14,000
Car 9,000 9,000 9,000
Total Non-Current Assets 23,000 23,000 23,000
Total Assets 89,000 99,000 110,000
Current Liabilities
Accounts Payable 10,000 9,000 11,000
Line of Credit 21,000 19,000 18,000
Total Current Liabilities 31,000 28,000 29,000
Non-current Liabilities
Loan 40,000 36,000 32,000
Total Liabilities 71,000 64,000 61,000
Owner’s Capital 35,000 35,000 35,000
Retained Earnings 45,000 56,000 65,000
Total Equity 80,000 91,000 100,000
Total Liabilities & Equity 151,000 155,000 161,000

What information do I need to prepare this statement? 

The majority of this statement’s information comes from your first-year monthly budget (cash flow statement) and your tax advisor’s expected estimates on depreciation. Specific requirements include:

  • A listing of your business’s bank account and credit card activities.
  • Include any petty cash and other cash transactions with receipts.
  • For income, you must mention all sources of revenue, including cheques, credit card payments, and so forth. These items should appear on your bank statement.
  • You will also want details on any sales reductions, like as discounts or refunds.

Profit-and-loss statements should be included in the typical reports of accounting software for businesses. Even if you already have this report in your system, you should still be aware of the information necessary to generate it.

Adding Cash Transactions to Your P&L

Remember to include all cash transactions, including income and costs. Even if you have company accounting software, you may still be required to manually record cash transactions, such as those for petty cash and income.

If you take cash from consumers, use a cash transaction form (available from office supply stores) or a straightforward invoice.

Save the receipt for all cash payments. These invoices are particularly crucial for mileage and lunch expenditures incurred while conducting business.

Types of pro forma statement

There are four primary forms of pro forma statements. Although they all belong to the same categories — income statement, balance sheet, and cash flow statement — they vary depending on the objective of the financial prediction.

1. Full-year pro forma projection

This sort of pro forma forecast takes into account all of your fiscal year’s financials up to this point, then adds predicted results for the balance of the year.This might assist you in demonstrating to investors or business partners how the company’s finances may appear at the conclusion of the fiscal year.

2. Financing or investment pro forma projection

You may be attempting to convince investors or business partners of the merits of a capital investment or more funding. In this scenario, you can make your argument with a finance pro forma prediction.

It considers a capital infusion from an outside source, as well as any interest payments that may be required, and illustrates how it would effect your company’s financial condition.

What Is pro Forma Profit and Loss Statement?

3. Historical with acquisition pro forma projection

This sort of pro forma prediction examines your organization’s previous financial statements as well as the past financial statements of the business you wish to acquire.

Then, it combines them to display how your financials would have appeared if you had completed a business combination (or merger) sooner.

You may use this situation as a model for what may occur in the future if you acquire the other company and reorganize immediately.

4. Risk analysis pro forma projection

Considering both the best-case and worst-case situations lets you make financial decisions based on potential future obstacles.

What happens, for instance, if your primary supplier raises their pricing like they did last year? Or, how will this transaction involving the purchase of new equipment affect you in the long run? Risk analysis allows you to simulate the future and experiment with various scenarios.

Preparing a Pro Forma (Projected Profit and Loss Statement

If you are just establishing a business, you must make educated guesses in order to generate a P&L statement. Typically, a pro forma statement is created for each month of the first year of operation.

However, your lender may want you to add additional months or years to the forecast to demonstrate the break-even point when your firm is consistently generating positive cash flow.

1. enumerate all probable expenditures and overestimate in order to avoid being shocked. Don’t forget to provide a category and quantity for “miscellaneous.”

2. Provide monthly sales forecasts Underestimate sales both in terms of timing and quantity.

3. Typically, the gap between costs and revenue is negative over a period of time. Negative numbers should be amassed to determine how much you will need to borrow to launch your firm.

Sample Company Profit and Loss Statement / For the Year Ending 12/31/2019
INCOME % of Total Income
   Product Sales   $43,000     95%
   Other Income       2,500        5%
 Total Income   $45,500    
   Advertising $       800        3%
   Bank Charges            42        .1%
   Office Expenses       4,502       18%
   Professional Fees       5,400       22%
   Miscellaneous       4,220       17%
   Travel, Meals          895         4%
   Taxes       8,900        36%
Total Expenses $   24,759        54%
NET INCOME $   20,741        46%
NET INCOME      $20,741

Preparing a Periodic Profit and Loss Statement

Whether you are writing a statement for a startup, tax preparation, or company analysis, the preparation method and necessary material are same. For each row, there will be a quarterly amount followed by an annual total.

  1. First, provide quarterly net income (often named “Sales”) for your firm. If desired, you may divide the money into sub-sections to display income from various sources.
  2. Then, list your quarterly business costs. Display each expenditure as a proportion of Sales. All costs should equal one hundred percent of revenue.
  3. Then, present Earnings as the difference between Sales and Expenses. This is often referred to as EBITDA (earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, amortization).
  4. Then, indicate the total interest on your company’s debt for the year and deduct it from EBITDA.
  5. Next, list projected taxes on the net income and deduct.
  6. , remove the entire depreciation and amortization for the year.

This number represents your net earnings, or profit or loss for the firm.

Beyond The Numbers

The underlying value of pro forma financial statements exceeds the figures they display. These studies give important stakeholders, investors, and creditors with the foresight required for decision-making and strategic planning.

Creating pro forma statements can also aid managers and individual contributors by allowing them to comprehend the many circumstances affecting company units.

What Is pro Forma Profit and Loss Statement?

Remember that pro forma financial statements have limitations. Due to the fact that these materials are based on assumptions, they should not be considered true. Rather, they might use hypothetical data based on previous trends to guide their conclusions.


A pro forma profit and loss statement (P&L) is the official accounting statement used by many businesses. It is also called the profit and loss statement. It shows a business’s profitability in comparison to its expenses, including depreciation, for the accounting period.

The basic format of a pro forma P&L includes a summary sheet, balance sheet, income statement and statement of retained earnings. The purpose of the statement is to compare the business’s performance from year to year.


Individual energy projects are often evaluated using P&L and Cash Flow statements that jointly are known as the “pro forma.” Unlike the P&L and Cash Flow statements for a company, which should represent actual historical data, the pro forma represents the analyst’s evaluation of the financial worthiness of a potential …
A pro forma financial statement leverages hypothetical data or assumptions about future values to project performance over a period that hasn’t yet occurred. In the online course Financial Accounting, pro forma financial statements are defined as “financial statements forecasted for future periods.
How to Do a Pro Forma Statement
  1. Calculate revenue projections for your business. Make sure to use realistic market assumptions to write an accurate pro forma statement. …
  2. Estimate your total liabilities and costs. Your liabilities are loans and lines of credit. …
  3. Estimate cash flows. …
  4. Create the chart of accounts.
A pro forma income statement is a document that shows a business’s adjusted income if certain financial inputs were removed. In other words, it’s a way to show what the income of the business would be if some costs were excluded.
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