What Is Research and Development? Types, Benefits, 11 Facts

To remain competitive on the market, businesses must provide clients and consumers with practical, valuable products and services. Research and development (R&D) is essential for understanding customer needs and developing products that meet those needs. 

What Is Research and Development (R&D)?

A department of research and development (R&D) is responsible for design, product, and fashion innovations. This division is responsible for creating innovative new products to keep businesses ahead of the competition. In addition, many businesses rely on the R&D division to improve existing consumer products and investigate new production methods.

What Is Research and Development?

Understanding Research and Development (R&D)

Innovation is commonly associated with research and development in both the private and public sectors. Research and development enables a company to maintain its competitive edge.

Without an R&D program, a company may not be able to exist on its own and may be forced to innovate through mergers and acquisitions (M&A) or partnerships. Through R&D, businesses are able to create new products and improve existing offerings.

R&D is distinct from the majority of an organization’s operational tasks. Research and/or development is typically conducted without the expectation of immediate profit. Instead, it is anticipated to contribute to the long-term profitability of a business. As new discoveries are made and new products are created, research and development may lead to patents, copyrights, and trademarks.

Companies that create and staff complete R&D departments invest a substantial amount of capital in the endeavor. Due to the absence of an immediate payback and the unpredictability of the return on investment (ROI), they must estimate the risk-adjusted return on their R&D spending, which entails capital risk.

As R&D expenditures increase, capital risk also increases. Other companies may choose to outsource their R&D for a variety of reasons, including size and cost.

Every industry and sector conducts research and development. Businesses expand as a result of these enhancements and the creation of new products and services.

The pharmaceutical, semiconductor, and software/technology industries invest the most in R&D. In Europe, R&D is known as research and technical or technology development (RTD).

Basic vs Applied Research

Research is typically either fundamental or applied. Basic research aids an organization in acquiring new knowledge, but has no specific application or goal. Consider it research for the sake of research.

Applied research is conducted with a specific objective, application, or product in mind, such as how to build a better mousetrap.

What does the research and development department do?

The department of research and development aids the company in determining which products and services are most likely to be successful if offered to customers and consumers. Several R&D duties and responsibilities are carried out by the department in order to generate data that will aid in the development of these products and services.

Included among the responsibilities of the majority of R&D departments are:

Product research

Following a proposal for a product or service, the research and development division conducts product research. This may involve a series of examinations, questionnaires, and other forms of investigation. The purpose of the study is to determine what makes the product useful, the requirements for how the team should construct it, the most effective means of marketing it, and the product’s success forecast.

Product development

Product development utilizes data and research to design and manufacture products with optimal specifications. For instance, a corporation is developing a new mobile phone.

What Is Research and Development?

The research and development team may determine what size the phone should be to fit comfortably in users’ hands, where buttons should be placed for easy access, how it will fit in users’ pockets, and what screen size is optimal for viewing.

Using these standards, the product development team generates multiple product designs frequently and may produce multiple prototypes for testing.

Product updates

Additionally, the research and development team examines and analyzes existing products to identify ways to improve their utility and comfort. This may involve conducting additional tests and surveys to determine what customers think of the product, followed by the evaluation of new designs that incorporate the suggested solutions.

Quality control

Typically, testing is a part of research and development to ensure product quality. Since the research and development team is aware of each product’s intended specifications, they can ensure that each product meets or exceeds those requirements.

This may involve testing the items themselves or collecting feedback from the product’s target audience. Prior to a product’s design being finalized for production, R&D uses its discoveries to improve it.

Benefits of research and development

A well-managed research and development department offers numerous benefits to businesses. Among the greatest benefits of research and development for a business are:

Promoting innovation

Research and development are necessary for identifying client and customer needs. By knowing this, businesses can determine whether or not any products currently on the market meet these criteria.

If there are no existing products that accomplish the same goal, they can invent a new product or improve existing ones. Voice control on mobile phones and applications, for example, is an innovative technology that has made users’ lives easier.

Helping businesses stay relevant

By developing new products or enhancing existing ones, research and development enables businesses to provide consumers with cutting-edge goods. On the market today, new products from other companies may offer consumers the desired minor upgrades.

Research and development can uncover effective ways to incorporate these enhancements into your own product, such as creating their own version of voice control for their mobile phone brand.

Providing effective customer service

Research and development often focuses on what customers value the most. It enables businesses to continuously improve the usability of their products, which may increase consumer satisfaction.

Ensuring quality products

The team frequently discovers the optimal product construction method through research and development. Before a product is released on the market, it is subjected to extensive testing to ensure its superior quality.

Offering potential tax breaks

Generally, businesses are permitted to deduct research and development expenses from their taxable income. However, this depends on a variety of factors, such as the location of the company and the type of research and development employed. Before deducting any of these expenses, it is essential to review your local tax laws and regulations.

What Is Research and Development?

Helping find investors

By demonstrating a product’s utility, marketability, and customer demand, effective research and development can help attract investors. When seeking investors to finance the development of a new product, businesses frequently rely on research and development department data.

Helping secure patents

The research and development team frequently generates patent-worthy designs and documentation. The team may also discover how to construct a product in a way that makes it patentable, even if it is a variant of an existing product.

Before patenting a new product, it is essential to research the applicable local laws and regulations.

Special Considerations

R&D Accounting

Research and development may have a positive impact on a company’s bottom line, but it is still considered a cost. Companies devote substantial resources to research and the creation of new products and services. Consequently, these expenses are frequently recorded for accounting purposes on the income statement despite their lack of long-term value.

In some cases, R&D costs are capitalized and recorded on the balance sheet. Not limited to, but including the following are examples:

  • Materials, fixed assets, and other assets have potential future applications with estimateable value and useful life.
    Software that has utility beyond the scope of a specific R&D project and can be deployed elsewhere within the organization.
    Allocation of indirect costs or overhead expenses between projects.
    The acquisition of research and development from a third party accompanied by intangible value. This intangible asset may be presented on the balance sheet as a separate asset.

Who Spends the Most on R&D?

Companies invest billions of dollars in research and development to develop the most innovative, in-demand products. The following businesses spent the most on research and development in 2020, according to published business records:

  • Amazon: $42.7 billion
  • Alphabet, Inc.: $27.6 billion
  • Huawei: $22.0 billion
  • Microsoft: $19.3 billion
  • Apple: $18.8 billion
  • Samsung: $18.8 billion
  • Facebook: $18.5 billion

In 2020, Amazon received 2,244 new patents after incurring $42.7 billion in research and development costs. Inventions in artificial intelligence, machine learning, and cloud computing were included in their patents.

Why Is Research and Development Important?

Given the rapid rate of technological advancement, businesses must invest in R&D to maintain a competitive advantage. Specifically, R&D enables companies to create products that are difficult for competitors to replicate.

In the interim, R&D activities may result in increased productivity that boosts profits, thereby establishing a competitive advantage. In a broader sense, R&D may help a company stay ahead of the competition by anticipating client requests or market trends.

What Is Research and Development?

Types of Research and Development

One R&D model is a department staffed primarily by engineers and tasked with the creation of new products, a process that frequently necessitates extensive research. This model lacks a defined purpose or application. The study is instead conducted for its own sake.

In the second model, technical, scientific, or industrial research is the responsibility of a department comprised of industrial scientists or researchers. This strategy facilitates the development of new products and/or the improvement of existing products and/or operational processes.

There are also company incubators and accelerators, in which businesses invest in startups and provide financial assistance and coaching to entrepreneurs in the hope that breakthroughs will occur that they can exploit.

Additionally, mergers and acquisitions and partnerships qualify as R&D because they enable corporations to leverage the institutional knowledge and expertise of other organizations.

R&D vs. Applied Research

The purpose of basic research is to gain a deeper understanding of the underlying characteristics of a concept or phenomenon. Typically, this is the first phase of research and development. Without specific application to goods, rules, or operational procedures, these activities serve as a source of knowledge.

Applied research consists of the actions taken to acquire information with a specific objective in mind. Among the activities may be the identification and development of new products, policies, or operational procedures. Due to its complexity and level of specificity, applied research is more time-consuming and costly.

What Types of Activities Can Be Found in Research and Development?

Research and development in a business focuses on the creation of new products or services. One of the primary objectives of R&D is to maintain a company’s competitiveness by developing and improving the existing product line.

Due to the long-term nature of research and development, it is not expected that its efforts will yield immediate profits. However, over time, R&D efforts may produce patents, trademarks, or groundbreaking discoveries that provide the organization with long-term benefits.

What Is an Example of Research and Development?

Consider Alphabet, which spent over $16 billion annually on R&D in 2018. Waymo’s research and development unit X, the moonshot factory, has created autonomous vehicles. In the interim, Amazon has significantly increased its R&D investments, particularly in cloud computing and its cashierless retail Amazon Go.

Alternately, R&D could adopt a merger-and-acquisition strategy, in which a company uses the expertise and intelligence of another to gain a competitive advantage. The same holds true for a company’s investment in accelerators and incubators, whose innovations it may later exploit.


Given the rapid pace of technological innovation, businesses must conduct research and development to maintain a competitive advantage. Specifically, research and development allows companies to create products that are difficult for competitors to replicate.

In the interim, research and development activities may lead to enhanced productivity, resulting in increased profits and a competitive advantage. In a broader sense, R&D may help a company stay ahead of the competition by anticipating client requests or market trends.

5/5 - (1 vote)
Pat Moriarty
Follow me

Leave a Comment